Marakushev A.A., Marakushev S.A. Fluid Evolution of the Earth and Origin of the Biosphere

The endogenous evolution of the Earth, controlled by impulses of fluid degassing from the liquid core, is responsible for a special evolutionary direction, which may be called “hydrogen–hydrocarbon–organic”. It starts with the appearance of hydrocarbon features of deep-seated magma chambers, the evolution of which is combined with the formation of the Earth’s crust depressions. Such features result from the development of alkali trends in the magmatism as indicated by hydrocarbon inclusions in earlygeneration minerals of alkali rocks. Their formation is controlled by the disproportionation reactions in fluids accompanying magmatism. Upward migration of hydrocarbons from magma chambers causes their access to the surface and accumulation in the Earth’s crust including gas and oil deposits in sedimentary basins on the continental frames of the oceans and marginal seas. Oxidizing environments of nearsurface structures provide separation of water from them, and the formation of their types depleted in hydrogen: acetylene, benzene, and their derivates. 
Reactions of the formation and transformation of hydrocarbons are accompanied by dehydration, which is an endothermic endogenous process. With cooling, there is not enough energy for its proceeding. This results in the development of the opposite processes of hydration and oxidation of hydrocarbon leading to abiogenic generation of organic compounds. Organic compounds and hydrocarbons are correlated by their hydrogen numbers illustrating their common origin. The differences in oxygen concentration reflect the distribution of organic compounds by oxidizing facies. The main regularity of the entrance of organic compounds in the C–H–O system is illustrated by their position on crossing of connodes connecting the compositions of primitive compounds with each other and hydrocarbons. This reflects their mutual relations, because their compositions are formed and duplicated by successive joining of reaction products to the earlier formed matter with the formation of polymers.

They outline reactions between the components of fluids, successive joining of which produces multicarbonic organic compounds. Thus, the formation of ethylene glycol results from the combination of the reactions of ethane oxidation and benzene (acetylene) hydration. The systems of organic substance generation differ in the type of components acting on the hydrocarbon compounds: oxygen (C–H–O), nitrogen (C–H–N), oxygen–nitrogen (C–H–O–N), and water and phosphoric (C–HN–H2O–P2O5). There are also concepts on prebiological peptide nucleic acids. This suggests that qualitatively new “complexes of life” may appear during interaction of abiotic inorganic precursors with organic nucleic acids and peptides (nucleotides and amino acids). This allows us to pay special attention to it considering the problem of origin and evolution of the biosphere, which, in our opinion, was formed and developed because of the influence of uprising hydrocarbon–organic plumes on the hydrosphere.

Дополнительная информация

  • Автор: Marakushev A.A., Marakushev S.A.
  • Язык: English
  • Год издания: 2010
  • Тематика: Fluid Evolution of the Earth and Origin of the Biosphere
  • Серия: Man and the geosphere
  • Издательство: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Город: New York

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